www.beri.ru

Issued by Sectigo RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA

About this certificate

This digital certificate with serial number 83:68:c9:93:57:11:aa:6e:34:25:59:08:d8:01:92:2f was issued on by Sectigo Limited.

With 2 subject alternative names this certificate can be used to secure multiple fqdn's. This certificate has already expired and will cause a warning or error message in the browser it's still listed on this site to allow you to look back on previously issued certificates. If we have found any compliance issues with this certificate they will be shown below. I hope this certificate review is providing you the detailed information in a simple form you where looking for.


We have idenified some issues with this certificate:
  • Subscriber Certificate: commonName is deprecated. (BRs: 7.1.4.2.2)

Certificate Subject

CN=www.beri.ru

Sectigo Limited

Organization: Sectigo Limited
State / Province: Greater Manchester
Locality: Salford
Country: GB

This certificate has expire since

Certificate Details

Serial Number (hex): 83:68:c9:93:57:11:aa:6e:34:25:59:08:d8:01:92:2f
Serial Number (int): 174672954758928377434970649144825319983
Serial Number lenght: 128 bits, 16 octets

SubjectKeyId: 84:5c:36:92:53:ad:67:c3:af:94:2e:d0:2d:cb:a3:62:17:be:29:4e
AuthorityKeyId: 8d:8c:5e:c4:54:ad:8a:e1:77:e9:9b:f9:9b:05:e1:b8:01:8d:61:e1

Fingerprint (sha1): 2a:c9:22:db:93:ed:78:95:39:7b:3e:1f:7c:00:f2:03:4f:4c:6e:ad
Fingerprint (sha256): 0e:25:0a:c2:a1:59:93:d3:9a:3b:ab:fb:8b:d5:3d:4f:f0:87:22:3c:8e:f7:12:21:a3:45:8a:9b:c4:b4:69:99

Issuing Certificate URL: http://crt.sectigo.com/SectigoRSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt

Revocation information

OCSP Server: http://ocsp.sectigo.com

Check the revocation status for certificate www.beri.ru

2

DNS Names

0

Email Addresses

0

IP Addresses

Advanced Certificate Properties

Tehnical certificate details for www.beri.ru

Public Key Algorithm

RSA

Key Size

2048

Signature Algorithm

SHA256 with RSA

Key Usage

Digital Signature
Key Encipherment

Extended Key Usages

Server Authentication
Client Authentication

Extensions

9 extensions
No unhandled critical extensions

CA Certificate

This is not a CA certificate

Subject Alternative Names

www.beri.ru
beri.ru

Other certificates including the domain name beri.ru

(limited to 100 certificates)

Certificate

The complete raw certificate details for www.beri.ru in PEM and ASN.1 format.

Certificate (PEM)

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Public Key (PEM)

-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA2QoA05KzGu5e4JgbwOfa
Lxt/OudEX/cZiCnIgi42zBhGzjinn+M3eXsh2jJFzik7lV26Sd0dFu5k7plebyZY
X0Ct4EtnS2s842IaMgj0Gyk0lXqz2NIVjfX1lbNanbrAaiRlSdZ3liAtzx/yXJHP
ulWKaJVsOxCEmgmyx/NgyiYIxb+jUxZ0FVsjuY0Fwmb4r6UXg7XPuLln13KWY8GE
KijughYi2Jqux1YUxlaPLi/pElj1j7phVd+Bhbk5uxeDhbQ7jyTXGg0IOzoEjgdi
06dKJi1akI9W2Zse9chZ8fWMRx8O/fkf1LJwnhcEOGbhaLEwERytba1D3Y6Fxd0D
8wIDAQAB
-----END PUBLIC KEY-----

ASN.1 decoded

 [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|true] OtherName 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 2
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 174672954758928377434970649144825319983
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11 (sha256WithRSAEncryption)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:5|false] NULL 
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.6 (countryName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'GB'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.8 (stateOrProvinceName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Greater Manchester'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.7 (localityName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Salford'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.10 (organizationName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Sectigo Limited'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.3 (commonName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Sectigo RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA'
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:23|false] UTCTime 2021-12-04 00:00:00 +0000 UTC
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:23|false] UTCTime 2023-01-04 23:59:59 +0000 UTC
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.3 (commonName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'www.beri.ru'
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.2.840.113549.1.1.1 (rsaEncryption)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:5|false] NULL 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:3|false] BIT STRING (2160 bits)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 27398644953380422081501064639324186974494815886991157112198665022617187268243016352644662621274637225931856489763102739065395695905901298741437799253780851360381282173651137943358268115417422975075879635819487098337952852084786727764226517046857128275044128202232879013093004134225289398806770476865599049518066533263592485040897331411812161272620476875036707730666518588444319312105316258778108930150505962874766860418816874014583053415797001296050849107854974240961255375186834953957847930728132755529994262779331649187306920961150846180220458399119018484917021279067022402344718215748808975866583837852097014727667
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 65537

 . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:3|true] ORAddress 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.35 (authorityKeyIdentifier)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (24 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|false] OtherName 8d8c5ec454ad8ae177e99bf99b05e1b8018d61e1
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.14 (subjectKeyIdentifier)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (22 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (20 bytes)
							845c369253ad67c3af942ed02dcba36217be294e
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.15 (keyUsage)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:1|false] BOOLEAN true
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (4 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:3|false] BIT STRING (3 bits)
							05a0
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.19 (basicConstraints)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:1|false] BOOLEAN true
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (2 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.37 (extKeyUsage)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (22 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1 (serverAuth)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2 (clientAuth)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.32 (certificatePolicies)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (66 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.4.1.6449.1.2.2.7
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.2.1 (cps)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:22|false] IA5String 'https://sectigo.com/CPS'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.23.140.1.2.1 (Domain Validation Certificates Policy)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.1.1 (authorityInfoAccess)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (120 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.48.2 (caIssuers)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:6|false] IA5String 'http://crt.sectigo.com/SectigoRSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.crt'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.48.1 (ocsp)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:6|false] IA5String 'http://ocsp.sectigo.com'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.17 (subjectAltName)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (24 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:2|false] IA5String 'www.beri.ru'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:2|false] IA5String 'beri.ru'
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.4.1.11129.2.4.2
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (369 bytes)
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (365 bytes)
							016b007700adf7befa7cff10c88b9d3d9c1e3e186ab467295dcfb10c24ca858634ebdc828a0000017d82d9bbc60000040300483046022100e1700672e63276fd78d13713c90bf03dba39b57756dc2f8bc9624b0d6012977502210097ae4441c7bbee3b517362046e23bf561b9e37ab8c74e988500d1e8eb86826160077007a328c54d8b72db620ea38e0521ee98416703213854d3bd22bc13a57a352eb520000017d82d9bb800000040300483046022100ca99969ca29b215a3a7226a899956b7269bd4b2ab772101839e6cb06e30ef3fb022100e18060cce18e9e10fadce606514bad086594810b935558f2724927253f18d845007700e83ed0da3ef5063532e75728bc896bc903d3cbd1116beceb69e1777d6d06bd6e0000017d82d9bb5f000004030048304602210092dadf3aab82ea39fa926c25f7e71ac8c66b7e3de039b59eb975e0573854f6c5022100a315844f19be3bf2684851dd4b1c3322209e1d49a5ed18145a9831582510c5c4
 . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF 
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11 (sha256WithRSAEncryption)
 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:5|false] NULL 
 . . . . [c:0|t:3|false] BIT STRING (2048 bits)
		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