intranet.kilgraston.com

Issued by DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA

About this certificate


This digital certificate with serial number 0f:cb:9a:57:73:75:60:3c:fc:d7:cb:7b:6c:88:86:16 was issued on by DigiCert Inc .

While the certificate has already expired and will cause a warning or error message in the browser it's still listed on this site to allow you to look back on previously issued certificates.

Kilgraston School

Organization: Kilgraston School
Organization unit: IT
State / Province: Perthshire
Locality: Perth
Country: GB

DigiCert Inc

Organization: DigiCert Inc
Organization unit: www.digicert.com
State / Province: Perthshire
Locality: Perth
Country: GB

Time since certificate expired

This certificate has expire since

Certificate Details

Serial Number (hex): 0f:cb:9a:57:73:75:60:3c:fc:d7:cb:7b:6c:88:86:16
Serial Number (int): 20995586618718084122947304147875563030
Serial Number lenght: 124 bits, 16 octets

SubjectKeyId: b4:2f:b7:3b:a8:a1:50:58:d7:f7:d6:4a:b3:87:49:bc:cd:0f:23:66
AuthorityKeyId: 51:68:ff:90:af:02:07:75:3c:cc:d9:65:64:62:a2:12:b8:59:72:3b

Fingerprint (sha1): 90:fe:3e:d3:04:1b:f7:5b:7d:87:9e:05:1a:b4:de:47:61:67:27:13
Fingerprint (sha256): ac:25:12:01:74:ac:62:d2:5c:41:19:79:0d:fd:36:e3:9d:28:88:32:e9:bc:85:6f:52:f7:45:0a:0c:0d:72:19

Issuing Certificate URL: http://cacerts.digicert.com/DigiCertSHA2HighAssuranceServerCA.crt

Revocation information

OCSP Server: http://ocsp.digicert.com
CRL Distribution Point: http://crl3.digicert.com/sha2-ha-server-g3.crl
CRL Distribution Point: http://crl4.digicert.com/sha2-ha-server-g3.crl

Check the revocation status for the current certificate on intranet.kilgraston.com
1
DNS Names
0
Email Addresses
0
IP Addresses

Advanced Certificate Properties

Technical details about this certificate


Public Key Algorithm

RSA

Key Size

2048

Signature Algorithm

SHA256 with RSA



Key Usage

Digital Signature
Key Encipherment

Extended Key Usages

Server Authentication
Client Authentication

Extensions

9 extensions
No unhandled critical extensions



CA Certificate

This is not a CA certificate

Subject Alternative Names

This certificate doesn't contain any other subject alternative names besides the common name of the subject: intranet.kilgraston.com

Certificate

The complete raw certificate details in PEM and ASN.1 format.

Certificate (PEM)

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- MIIFXzCCBEegAwIBAgIQD8uaV3N1YDz818t7bIiGFjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADBw MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzEVMBMGA1UEChMMRGlnaUNlcnQgSW5jMRkwFwYDVQQLExB3 d3cuZGlnaWNlcnQuY29tMS8wLQYDVQQDEyZEaWdpQ2VydCBTSEEyIEhpZ2ggQXNz dXJhbmNlIFNlcnZlciBDQTAeFw0xNDEwMDkwMDAwMDBaFw0xNjAxMDcxMjAwMDBa MH0xCzAJBgNVBAYTAkdCMRMwEQYDVQQIEwpQZXJ0aHNoaXJlMQ4wDAYDVQQHEwVQ ZXJ0aDEaMBgGA1UEChMRS2lsZ3Jhc3RvbiBTY2hvb2wxCzAJBgNVBAsTAklUMSAw HgYDVQQDExdpbnRyYW5ldC5raWxncmFzdG9uLmNvbTCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEB BQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBANSSQsHEd2DxG7Zi49w4Ej3gZPTYcZq06XO//67d2c4X l6piYCODfz4YMVf+GP0pua7KoJkFVGKK2jMpd50TBgvuSkcYlBa22/ypxzMJ889H sGbn6WqtIhWUffamc8saydp7LGjGuXYnQrGmYBtw+dHDuZRDSBiNGHVLoN1zgdA2 PYqP4XkOd4ITPzO/vKkeJlXyNDFdTKiYAL3lOQphlx0pKlywzxH3MYaRbFFH8aFx 2L/mycR4PsM9R+UO/xmEvcG94TbWBKY0U9BiVi7KEnYbN9rYEmYXXL4evHfT4fVI 5AhmRwbrXCV1ayqZKodPvL8zynYnhbKYqVxMseY3+SkCAwEAAaOCAeYwggHiMB8G A1UdIwQYMBaAFFFo/5CvAgd1PMzZZWRiohK4WXI7MB0GA1UdDgQWBBS0L7c7qKFQ WNf31kqzh0m8zQ8jZjAiBgNVHREEGzAZghdpbnRyYW5ldC5raWxncmFzdG9uLmNv bTAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCBaAwHQYDVR0lBBYwFAYIKwYBBQUHAwEGCCsGAQUFBwMC MHUGA1UdHwRuMGwwNKAyoDCGLmh0dHA6Ly9jcmwzLmRpZ2ljZXJ0LmNvbS9zaGEy LWhhLXNlcnZlci1nMy5jcmwwNKAyoDCGLmh0dHA6Ly9jcmw0LmRpZ2ljZXJ0LmNv bS9zaGEyLWhhLXNlcnZlci1nMy5jcmwwQgYDVR0gBDswOTA3BglghkgBhv1sAQEw KjAoBggrBgEFBQcCARYcaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZGlnaWNlcnQuY29tL0NQUzCBgwYI KwYBBQUHAQEEdzB1MCQGCCsGAQUFBzABhhhodHRwOi8vb2NzcC5kaWdpY2VydC5j b20wTQYIKwYBBQUHMAKGQWh0dHA6Ly9jYWNlcnRzLmRpZ2ljZXJ0LmNvbS9EaWdp Q2VydFNIQTJIaWdoQXNzdXJhbmNlU2VydmVyQ0EuY3J0MAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAw DQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAFZjYea5ZPE9MS8S/OwTroT8fszl/0DUasNzFuj7 0hU2d+D0arY75CO+u8kGlD0KckmcnlMS5Upmxi0R+IPm8pg2lS2bLfBDFARN+UrE QX5+B/rpjamH6A25zfjs3Q/FLaLrSbhMRfMg1NeXM2lw0+ORIRTl5ggp0nzLg9bR 2gKX+kLB3tNb5VMXWwybnjdTJMal7Alo68v3njRQVCXmXgEcL5nDis2ANIgHZ82b AW8TmPQampWT6+F29AUkGW12qKKVAu2aZdVuuBISRxUB1NUN5ucok0xf6xEsPzOc Jd5VNClsvc9DML0+aDGXr2jXcxQ9pd4tfx4pS8kZstsXwHs= -----END CERTIFICATE-----

Public Key (PEM)

-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY----- MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA1JJCwcR3YPEbtmLj3DgS PeBk9NhxmrTpc7//rt3ZzheXqmJgI4N/PhgxV/4Y/Sm5rsqgmQVUYoraMyl3nRMG C+5KRxiUFrbb/KnHMwnzz0ewZufpaq0iFZR99qZzyxrJ2nssaMa5didCsaZgG3D5 0cO5lENIGI0YdUug3XOB0DY9io/heQ53ghM/M7+8qR4mVfI0MV1MqJgAveU5CmGX HSkqXLDPEfcxhpFsUUfxoXHYv+bJxHg+wz1H5Q7/GYS9wb3hNtYEpjRT0GJWLsoS dhs32tgSZhdcvh68d9Ph9UjkCGZHButcJXVrKpkqh0+8vzPKdieFspipXEyx5jf5 KQIDAQAB -----END PUBLIC KEY-----

ASN1 Decoded

[c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|true] OtherName . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 2 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 20995586618718084122947304147875563030 . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11 (sha256WithRSAEncryption) . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:5|false] NULL . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.6 (countryName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'US' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.10 (organizationName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'DigiCert Inc' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.11 (organizationalUnitName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'www.digicert.com' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.3 (commonName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA' . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:23|false] UTCTime 2014-10-09 00:00:00 +0000 UTC . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:23|false] UTCTime 2016-01-07 12:00:00 +0000 UTC . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.6 (countryName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'GB' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.8 (stateOrProvinceName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Perthshire' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.7 (localityName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Perth' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.10 (organizationName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'Kilgraston School' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.11 (organizationalUnitName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'IT' . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:17|true] SET, SET OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.4.3 (commonName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:19|false] PrintableString 'intranet.kilgraston.com' . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.2.840.113549.1.1.1 (rsaEncryption) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:5|false] NULL . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:3|false] BIT STRING (2160 bits) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 26834644526169117262017670119155645314868161974463933318350238330932515695682742039799576172717651675449504052189822082698875304238890221733574539797647065015465240817757243707866026716952969017712938495796380576554602805783679163476222643755997045296035666509767861745827719432887115128516516593518637063866669698155782469931938593344834205906075538522339417697818948473280506163305234634470188626373989156992387580443482832126004758270030081207823487451242468192751198753072925171739841985996656761460977452460184089509398375896237043702487723529592419481272184024464144430445882017069987172157277262169804614662441 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:2|false] INTEGER 65537 . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:3|true] ORAddress . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.35 (authorityKeyIdentifier) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (24 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|false] OtherName 5168ff90af0207753cccd9656462a212b859723b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.14 (subjectKeyIdentifier) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (22 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (20 bytes) b42fb73ba8a15058d7f7d64ab38749bccd0f2366 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.17 (subjectAltName) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (27 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:2|false] IA5String 'intranet.kilgraston.com' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.15 (keyUsage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:1|false] BOOLEAN true . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (4 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:3|false] BIT STRING (3 bits) 05a0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.37 (extKeyUsage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (22 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1 (serverAuth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.2 (clientAuth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.31 (cRLDistributionPoints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (110 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|true] OtherName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|true] OtherName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:6|false] IA5String 'http://crl3.digicert.com/sha2-ha-server-g3.crl' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|true] OtherName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:0|true] OtherName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:6|false] IA5String 'http://crl4.digicert.com/sha2-ha-server-g3.crl' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.32 (certificatePolicies) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (59 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.16.840.1.114412.1.1 (digiCertOVCert) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.2.1 (cps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:22|false] IA5String 'https://www.digicert.com/CPS' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.1.1 (authorityInfoAccess) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (119 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.48.1 (ocsp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:6|false] IA5String 'http://ocsp.digicert.com' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.3.6.1.5.5.7.48.2 (caIssuers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:2|t:6|false] IA5String 'http://cacerts.digicert.com/DigiCertSHA2HighAssuranceServerCA.crt' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 2.5.29.19 (basicConstraints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:1|false] BOOLEAN true . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:4|false] OCTET STRING (2 bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . [c:0|t:16|true] SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE OF . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:6|false] OBJECT IDENTIFIER 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11 (sha256WithRSAEncryption) . . . . . . . . [c:0|t:5|false] NULL . . . . [c:0|t:3|false] BIT STRING (2048 bits) 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